Haruni Krisnawati, Rinaldi Imanuddin, Wahyu Catur Adinugroho, Silver Hutabarat
© 2015 Ministry of Environment and Forestry
Research, Development and Innovation Agency
The global community is working towards a new agreement to address the impacts of climate change. At the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) twenty-first conference of the parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015, parties will seek to finalize a new post-2020 agreement on climate change. For this agreement to be effective, it must include emissions reduction pledges from countries and robust emissions measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) requirements to ensure that these pledges are met.
To meet these emissions reporting requirements, the Government of Indonesia (GOI) is developing the Indonesian National Carbon Accounting System (INCAS) as the national platform for greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting. The INCAS is designed as a Tier 3 level GHG accounting system that provides a systematic and nationally consistent approach to monitoring GHG emissions and removals in the land based sectors. The INCAS generates detailed information on historic, present time and future projections of GHG emissions and removals. This level of detail will allow Indonesia to better understand, manage and ultimately reduce GHG emissions in a targeted and effective manner.
This document presents these first national level results from INCAS; an annual account of historical GHG emissions and removals from Indonesia’s forest and peatlands for the period of 2001 to 2012. These results include annual estimates of net GHG emissions from key activities occurring on forest lands (REDD+ activities): (i) deforestation, (ii) forest degradation, (iii) sustainable management of forests, and (iv) enhancement of forest carbon stocks. Emissions from biological oxidation and fires on disturbed peatlands are also included. All relevant greenhouse gases and carbon pools are accounted for.
The results from this analysis show significant annual variation in GHG emissions and removals on forest and peatlands across the whole country; reflecting the impact of historical land management, current practices and fluctuations in weather conditions, particularly dry years with higher incidences of fire. Net GHG emissions reported include all lands, all carbon pools, relevant gases and activities at all scales. The year with greatest GHG emissions was 2006 with a total of 1.5 Gt CO2-e, and the lowest was in 2001 with 0.8 Gt CO2-e. Generally, emissions from biological oxidation of peatlands were the largest single source of emissions. The three provinces with the highest average emissions were Riau, Central Kalimantan and Papua.
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